The Tour de France likes its themes with anniversaries, war memorials and more in recent years. 2011 was the year of the Col du Galibier with the race visiting the mountain pass twice and each time with thrilling consequences. Even the Giro d’Italia has paid a visit.
A crucible for the sport but a vast open space and a climb that has everything, from ski resorts to wildlife.
The D215a starts in Saint Michel de Maurienne and passes over the Col du Télégraphe to drop into the ski resort of Valloire and then takes the D902 south to reach the pass at 2,645 metres above sea level . The Col du Télégraphe alone is 11.8km at 7.3% and the Galibier from Valloire is 18.1km at 6.1%. In total the route is 34.9km with an average gradient of 5.5%, a figure distorted by the descent in the middle.
The wide Maurienne valley is a busy place. Tourists come for the scenery and trucks come for the heavy industry. The Arc river is used to make electricity for energy intensive work like aluminium smelting and the valley is a strange place with its factories and plants surrounded by pristine nature. But to start climbing is to turn your back on all this. The climb starts steep with the slope biting at 15% is you take the inside line on an early hairpin bend.
The Télégraphe is wooded for much of the way and progress is hard to measure. The road is wide and after a series of hairpin bends you know the top is near when the road straightens out and there are views to the right back across the valley to the white peaks. The top is signalled by a large wooden sign to welcome visitors and then follows a straightforward descent to Valloire.
Valloire is a ski resort and has all the trappings: pine-clad chalets, cheese and cheesy goods for sale and a string of sports outlets seemingly owned by the Locationski family – presumably of Polish origin. Stop to refuel if you want but the town has a dull vibe. On the way out a sign indicates 17km to the Galibier, an invitation to look down at your bike computer, see your speed and calculate the time remaining. An hour? More?
In time the buildings disappear and what felt like a dull place was comforting with its shops and cafés. The road heads up a wide valley with pastures and peaks all around and it gets increasingly barren although mankind’s imprint is obvious with the road, a few cars and convoys of motorbikes roaring past. The gradient is consistent but the road’s straight line makes progress slow, there’s little to aim for as the road ramps up in a straight line beyond your bars. But be careful what you wish for as the road approaches Plan Lachat, a collection of buildings and a bridge where the road bends to the right and climbs up. If the road didn’t look steep before, now you see it climbing diagonally up the mountain to the right.
Now begins the hardest part of the climb and the place where the famous attacks have been launched. Pantani’s acceleration in 1999 for example. You’ll see a palimpsest of cycling graffiti, especially on the rock faces because if they resurface the road over time, some paint is durable enough to cope for decades on the rocks. Evans, Delgado, CSC, a golden kangaroo.
Onwards and past the “Granges the Galibier”, a couple of iron-roofed barns where cheese is sold out of one building. Not for the cyclist but a sign of progress. Onwards and the pass comes into sight, the last ramps again cut diagonally in to the dark rock. There is a tunnel but cyclists are not allowed, an evil regulation but perhaps whoever designed the rule knew it’s worth forcing the riders higher over the ridge just so that they go home without regret. Stop to admire the view but beware the weather, linger too long and a big chill awaits on the descent.
Stand at the top and Valloire feels a long way below: measured vertically the ski resort is a kilometre lower. In other words they built a place for the winter season and abundant snow much lower. Consequently the pass is only open for a few months of the year, typically early June to early October and indicated by large “Col Ouvert” signs. But just because it’s open doesn’t mean it’s fine, the weather can change quickly and anything is possible from icy conditions to a raging thunderstorm. Even the Giro had to alter its finish on the Galibier this year and riders had helpers on hand with warm clothes and hot drinks.
Having covered one side, you can descend the other. Note the large stone tower near the tunnel mouth on the south side, this is the memorial to Tour founder Henri Desgrange to seal the link between the Tour de France and this road.
Col du Télégraphe
This gets its name from the fort at the top built by Napoloeon which itself takes its name from a telegraph post that stood on the site. The telegraph post was part of a communications network stretching from Paris to Milan and beyond where an operator created semaphore signals using a mast with mechanical arms which would move to different positions to signal different letters. An operator would signal whilst the next operator, perhaps 25km away, would use binoculars to note down the signal and then they’d use the mechanical signal themselves so that the next operator could make notes and so pass the signal down the line. The system started in 1790 and by 1810 was in operation in the Alps and able to pass messages from Amsterdam to Paris and on to Turin and then Mantova but only if the weather was good.
“Haven’t they got wings, our men who have been able to climb up to heights where even eagles don’t fly? Oh Sappey, Oh Laffrey, Oh Col Bayard, Oh Tourmalet! I shall not fail in my duty to proclaim to the world that you are like an insignificant and small beer compared to the Galibier: all one can do before this giant is doff one’s hat and bow.”
– Henri Desgranges
As the owner and promoter of the Tour de France Desgrange was entitled to some hype but sending the race up the climb in 1911 was wild, the equivalent of trying to run a World Tour stage race in Ladakh. The road wasn’t surfaced properly and bikes had no gears and only rudimentary brakes. Riders had no more than wool clothing and it was a far cry from today’s technical garments in merino.
The Galibier has been climbed 58 times in total on both sides and 37 ascensions of the Télégraphe. 2011 featured both sides and some of the best racing in recent memory. On the south side via the Lautaret it was Andy Schleck who took off solo for arguably his best career win and a move that was brave in hindsight as at the time it looked wild and almost foolish but ridiculously entertaining. The next day saw a short stage and the race climbed the north side from Saint Michel with Alberto Contador attacking right from the first hairpin bends, forcing Cadel Evans and Thomas Voeckler in yellow to chase, a move which cost the Frenchman the race lead as he cracked higher up.
Travel and Access
The Maurienne Valley is a fine place for cycling although a mild gamble if you’re visiting from afar in case the weather’s bad. The Galibier is there to ride but there’s the Col d’Iseran, the Mont Cenis into Italy, the Croix de Fer and Glandon sisters and the Col de la Madeleine. As well as the bonus… the Lacets de Montvernier, 18 hairpins in less than 4km.
The town of St Jean de Maurienne is a good enough place – FDJ have a deal with the town as their Alpine base – but again the main valley road is busy and at times industrial so climb to get away from it all.
Photo credit: Main image by Flickr’s Muneaki
Part I – Alpe d’Huez
Part II – The Ghisallo
Part III – Mont Ventoux
Part IV – Col de la Madone
Part V – Col du Soulor
Part VI – Passo Dello Stelvio
Part VII – Mont Aigoual
Part VIII – Col de la République
Part IX – Croce d’Aune
Part X – Strade Bianche
Part XI – Col d’Eze
Part XII – The Poggio
Part XIII – Arenberg Cobbles
Part XIV – Col du Tourmalet
Part XV – Côte de La Redoute
Part XVI – Col du Pin Bouchain
Part XVII – Puy de Dôme
Part XVIII – La Planche des Belles Filles
Part XIX – Col du Lautaret
Part XX – Col du Palaquit
Part XXI – Champs Elysées
Part XXII: The Col du Galibier
Part XXIII: The Lacets de Montvernier
Part XXIV: Hautacam
Part XXV: The Schelde Bike Path
Part XXVI: Col de Marie-Blanque
Part XXVII: Jebel Al Akhdar
Part XXVIII: Genting Highlands